Intimate Partner Violence
In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a crime that occurs often and affects a multitude of people worldwide. The most common depiction of IPV, as seen in the media and acknowledged by society, involves a female victim and an abusive male partner (Jeffries & Ball, 2008; Murray, Mobley, Buford & Seamn-DeJohn, 2007). Studies have shown that on a global scale 20% of women have been physically or sexually abused by a male perpetrator (Shai & Sikweyiya, 2015). While society distinguishes abusive behavior as a man harming a woman, other groups remain invisible to a violent epidemic.
HPV Vaccine Uptake
Over 275,000 women lose their lives to cervical cancer each year with more than 500,000 new diagnoses being reported annually on a global scale (Hopkins & Wood, 2013). Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second biggest cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide (Angioli et al., 2016). In sub-Saharan Africa, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women between the ages of 15 and 44 and is the primary cause of female cancer-related deaths (Black & Richmond, 2018). In South Africa 12,983 women are annually diagnosed with cervical cancer (Bruni et al., 2018). The damaging effect thereof is seen widely across African countries due to the lack of accessible preventative cytological screening (Pap smears) and early detection, as well as the pervasiveness of associated risk factors for the disease (Cunningham, Davidson, & Aronson, 2013).